Carter was among the Indianapolis Colts' cuts on Saturday, along with defensive tackles Josh Chapman and Montori Hughes.
The son of Hall of Famer Cris Carter, Duron signed with the Colts in February after recording 1,939 yards in two seasons as a star with the CFL's Montreal Alouettes.
Indianapolis signed Carter to its practice squad on Sunday, according to NFL Media Insider Ian Rapoport.
Faced with questions about maturity, work ethic and academic track record, Carter went undrafted in 2013 after bouncing from Ohio State to Coffeyville (Kan.) Community College to Alabama to Florida Atlantic.
Carter finished the preseason with 126 yards on nine catches. He and former Chargers wideout Vincent Brown lost out to perennial fifth receiver Griff Whalen, valued for his special teams ability and sure hands.
The Vikings, Buccaneers, Chiefs, 49ers, Browns and Panthers were all reported to have varying levels of interest in signing Carter last offseason.
With Chapman and Hughes out of the picture and Arthur Jones on injured reserve, the Colts' defensive front is undergoing a makeover.
Third- and fifth-round rookies Henry Anderson and David Parry will be thrust into prominent roles next to free-agent acquisition Kendall Langford.
Joined by new linebackers Sio Moore and Trent Cole, perhaps the revamped front seven will have more success stopping the Patriots' ground-'n'-pound attack in big games.