Research Conducted by NFL Medical Committee Members

Overview

Members of the NFL Medical Committees are experts in a variety of medical and scientific disciplines relevant to player health and safety. These renowned specialists support the league's efforts to continually improve the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of injuries. They meet throughout the year to determine what policies, programs and protocols should be adopted in an effort to improve the game.

Many NFL Medical Committee members are actively working on groundbreaking research to address some of the most complicated health issues in the sports industry and beyond. Below is a list of research conducted by the NFL's Medical Committee members.

Research

Characterization of Concussive Events in Professional American Football Using Videogrammetry

  • Authors: Ann M. Bailey, Christopher P. Sherwood, James R. Funk, Jeff R. Crandall, Neal Carter, David Hessel, Stephen Beier, William Neale
  • Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering (October 2020)

Comparison of Laboratory and On-Field Performance of American Football Helmets

  • Authors: Ann M. Bailey, Timothy L. McMurry, Joseph M. Cormier, James R. Funk, Jeff R. Crandall, Christina D. Mack, Barry S. Myers, Kristy B. Arbogast
  • Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering (October 2020)

Development and Evaluation of a Test Method for Assessing the Performance of American Football Helmets

  • Authors: Ann M. Bailey, Erin J. Sanchez, Gwansik Park, Lee F. Gabler, James R. Funk, Jeff R. Crandall, Michael Wonnacott, Chris Withnall, Barry S. Myers, Kristy B. Arbogast
  • Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering (October 2020)

Laboratory Reconstructions of Concussive Helmet-to-Helmet Impacts in the National Football League

  • Authors: James R Funk, Ron Jadischke, Ann Bailey, Jeff Crandall, Joe McCarthy, Kristy Arbogast, Barry Myers
  • Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering (September 2020)

Surface Contact Features, Impact Obliquity, and Preimpact Rotational Motion in Concussive Helmet-to-Ground Impacts: Assessment via a New Impact Test Device

  • Authors: Richard Kent, Jason Forman, Ann Bailey, Joseph Cormier, Gwansik Park, Jeff Crandall, Kristy B. Arbogast, Barry Myers
  • Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering (September 2020)

Foot shape analysis of professional American Football players

  • Authors: Gwansik Park and Richard Kent
  • Source: Footwear Science (May 2020)

Finite Element Model of a Deformable American Football Helmet Under Impact

  • Authors: J. Sebastian Giudice, Adrian Caudillo, Sayak Mukherjee, Kevin Kong, Gwansik Park, Richard Kent, Matthew B. Panzer
  • Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering (February 2020)

The biomechanics of concussive helmet-to-ground impacts in the National Football League

  • Authors: Richard Kent, Jason Forman, Ann M. Bailey, James Funk, Chris Sherwood, Jeff Crandall, Kristy B. Arbogast, Barry S. Myers
  • Source: Journal of Biomechanics (January 2020)

Relative Motion Between the Helmet and the Head in Football Impact Test

  • Authors: Hamed Joodaki, Ann Bailey, David Lessley, James Funk, Chris Sherwood, Jeff Crandall
  • Source: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering (August 2019)

A Reanalysis Of Football Impact Reconstructions For Head Kinematics And Finite Element Modeling

  • Authors: Erin J. Sanchez, Lee F. Gabler, Ann B. Good, James R. Funk, Jeff R. Crandall, Matthew B. Panzer
  • Source: Clinical Biomechanics (April 2019)

Higher Rates of Lower Extremity Injury on Synthetic Turf Compared with Natural Turf Among National Football League Athletes: Epidemiologic Confirmation of a Biomechanical Hypothesis

  • Authors: C.D. Mack, E.B. Hershman, R.B. Anderson, M.J. Coughlin, A.S. McNitt, R.R. Sendor, R.W. Kent
  • Source: The American Journal of Sports Medicine (November 2018)

Video Analysis Of Reported Concussion Events In The NFL During The 2015-2016 And 2016-2017 Seasons

  • Authors: David J. Lessley, Richard W. Kent, James R. Funk, Christopher P. Sherwood, Joseph M. Cormier, Jeff R. Crandall, Kristy B. Arbogast, Barry S. Myers
  • Source: The American Journal of Sports Medicine (November 2018)

Development of Open-Source Dummy and Impactor Models for the Assessment of American Football Helmet Finite Element Models

  • Authors: J. Sebastian Giudice, Gwansik Park, Kevin Kong, Ann Bailey, Richard Kent, Matthew B. Panzer
  • Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering (October 2018)

Validation Of A Videogrammetry Technique For Analyzing American Football Helmet Kinematics

  • Authors: Ann Bailey, James Funk, David Lessley, Chris Sherwood, Jeff Crandall, William Neale & Nathan Rose
  • Source: Sports Biomechanics (October 2018)

Inertial Properties of Football Helmets June 2018

  • Authors: James R. Funk, Roberto E. Quesada, Alexander M. Miles, Jeff R. Crandall
  • Source: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering (June 2018)

Observed Versus Expected COVID-19 Infections Among National Football League Players During the 2020 Season

  • Authors: Michael J. Lopez, Christina Mack, Thompson Bliss, Erin B. Wasserman, Emily Myers, Gary Solomon, John Lynch, Anthony Casolaro, Michael Osterholm, Dan Hanfling, Thom Mayer, Allen K. Sills
  • Source: Epidemiology (September 2021)

Optimizing SARS-CoV-2 Surveillance in the United States: Insights From the National Football League Occupational Health Program

  • Authors: Christina DeFilippo Mack, Michael Osterholm, Erin B. Wasserman, Natalia Petruski-Ivleva, Deverick J. Anderson, Emily Myers, Navdeep Singh, Patti Walton, Gary Solomon, Christopher Hostler, Jimmie Mancell, Allen Sills
  • Source: Annals of Internal Medicine (June 2021)

Prevalence of Inflammatory Heart Disease Among Professional Athletes With Prior COVID-19 Infection Who Received Systematic Return-to-Play Cardiac Screening

  • Authors: Matthew W. Martinez, Andrew M. Tucker, Josh Bloom, Gary Green, John P. DiFiori, Gary Solomon, Dermot Phelan, Jonathan H. Kim, Willem Meeuwisse, Allen K. Sills, Dana Rowe, Isaac I. Bogoch, Paul T. Smith, Aaron L. Baggish, Margot Putukian, David J. Engel
  • Source: JAMA Cardiology (March 2021)

Implementation and Evolution of Mitigation Measures, Testing, and Contact Tracing in the National Football League, August 9–November 21, 2020

  • Authors: Christina D. Mack, Erin B. Wasserman, Cria G. Perrine, Adam MacNeil, Deverick J. Anderson, Emily Myers; Sabrina Smith; L. Clifford McDonald, Michael Osterholm, Gary S. Solomon, Thom Mayer, Allen Sills
  • Source: CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) (January 2021)

Return to Sport for North American Professional Sport Leagues in the Context of COVID-19

  • Authors: John DiFiori, Gary Green, Willem Meeuwisse, Margot Putukian, Gary Solomon, Allen Sills
  • Source: British Journal of Sports Medicine (September 2020)

Arrhythmias And Adaptions Of The Cardiac Conduction System In Former NFL Players

  • Authors: Philip Aagaard, Shishir Sharma, David A. McNamara, Parag Joshi, Colby R. Ayers, James A. de Lemos, Andrew E. Lincoln, Bryan Baranowski, Kyle Mandsager, Elizabeth Hill, Lon Castle, James GentryIII, Richard Lang, Reginald E. Dunn, Kezia Alexander, Andrew M. Tucker, and Dermot Phelan
  • Source: Journal of the American Heart Association (August 2019)

Risk And Causes Of Death Among Former NFL Players (1986-2012)

  • Authors: Andrew E. Lincoln, Robert A. Vogel, Thomas W. Allen, Reginald E. Dunn, Kezia Alexander, Nathaniel D. Kaufman, Andrew M. Tucker
  • Source: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise (March 2018)

Ascending Aortic Dimensions in Former NFL Athletes

  • Authors: James L. GentryIII, David Carruthers, Parag H. Joshi, Christopher D. Maroules, Colby R. Ayers, James A. de Lemos, Philip Aagaard, Rory Hachamovitch, Milind Y. Desai, Eric E. Roselli, Reginald E. Dunn, Kezia Alexander, Andrew E. Lincoln, Andrew M. Tucker, and Dermot M. Phelan
  • Source: Journal of the American Heart Association (November 2017)

Sleep Apnea Risk and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Early-Middle-Aged Retired National Football Players

  • Authors: Faith S. Luyster, Reginald E. Dunn, Diane S. Lauderdale, Mercedes R. Carnethon, Andrew M. Tucker, Robert A. Vogel, Andrew E. Lincoln, Kristen L. Knutson, Elliot J. Pellman, Patrick J. Strollo
  • Source: Nature and Science of Sleep (February 2017)

Epidemiology of Concussion in the National Football League, 2015-2019

  • Authors: Christina Mack, PhD, Gary Solomon, PhD, Tracey Covassin, PhD, ATC, Nicholas Theodore, MD, Javier Cárdenas, MD, Allen Sills, MD
  • Source: Sports Health (April 2020)

Sensitivity and Specificity of On-Field Visible Signs of Concussions in the National Football League

  • Authors: Robert J. Elbin, Scott L. Zuckerman, Allen K. Sills, Jeff R. Crandall, David J. Lessley, Gary S. Solomon
  • Source: Neurosurgery (April 2020)

Concussions in the National Football League: The Evolution of Video Review for Assessing the Frequency and Reliability of Visible Signs

  • Authors: Scott L. Zuckerman, R.J. Elbin, Allen K. Sills, Jeff R. Crandall, David J. Lessley, Caitlin M. Moran, Caroline D. Moran & Gary S. Solomon
  • Source: The Physician and Sportsmedicine, Taylor & Francis Ltd (February 2020)

Concussion Guidelines Step 2: Evidence for Subtype Classification

  • Authors: Angela Lumba-Brown, MD, Masaru Teramoto, PhD, MPH, PStat®, Josh Bloom, MD, MPH, David Brody, MD, PhD, James Chesnutt, MD, James R Clugston, MD, MS, Michael Collins, PhD, Gerard Gioia, PhD, Anthony Kontos, PhD, Avtar Lal, PhD, Allen Sills, MD, Jamshid Ghajar, MD, PhD
  • Source: Neurosurgery (January 2020)

International Consensus Definitions Of Video Signs Of Concussion In Professional Sports

  • Authors: Gavin A. Davis, Michael Makdissi, Paul Bloomfield, Patrick Clifton, Ruben J. Echemendia, Eanna Cian Falvey, Gordon Ward Fuller, Gary Green, Peter Harcourt, Thomas Hill, Nathan McGuirk, Willem Meeuwisse, John Orchard, Martin Raftery, Allen K Sills, Gary S Solomon, Alex Valadka, Paul McCrory
  • Source: British Journal of Sports Medicine (October 2019)

International Study Of Video Review Of Concussion In Professional Sports

  • Authors: Gavin Davis, Michael Makdissi, Paul Bloomfield, Patrick Clifton, Ruben J. Echemendia, Éanna Cian Falvey, Gordon Ward Fuller, Gary Green, Peter Rex Harcourt, Thomas Hill,Nathan McGuirk, Willem Meeuwisse, John W Orchard, Martin Raftery, Allen K. Sills, Gary S. Solomon, Alex Valadka, Paul McCrory
  • Source: British Journal of Sports Medicine (October 2019)

Engaging Athletic Trainers in Concussion Detection: Overview of the National Football League ATC Spotter Program, 2011-17

  • Authors: Christina Mack, Emily Myers, Ronnie Barnes, Gary Solomon, Allen Sills
  • Source: Journal of Athletic Training (August 2019)

National Football League Head, Neck, and Spine Committee's Concussion Diagnosis and Management Protocol: 2017-18 season

  • Authors: R.G. Ellenbogen, H. Batjer, J. Cardenas, M. Berger, E. Pieroth, R. Heyer, N. Theodore, W. Hsu, E. Nabel, J. Maroon, R. Cantu, R. Barnes, J. Collins, M. Putukian, R. Lonser, G. Solomon, A. Sills
  • Source: British Journal of Sports Medicine (July 2018)

Validity of Research Based on Public Data in Sports Medicine: A Quantitative Assessment of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in the National Football League

  • Authors: Paul M. Inclan, MD, Peter S. Chang, MD, Christina D. Mack, PhD, Gary S. Solomon, PhD, Robert H. Brophy, MD, Richard Y. Hinton, MD, PT, Kurt P. Spindler, MD, Allen K. Sills, MD, Matthew J. Matava, MD
  • Source: The American Journal of Sports Medicine (June 2021)

Epidemiology of Shoulder Instability in the National Football League

  • Authors: Matthew J.J. Anderson, MD, Christina D. Mack, PhD, MSPH, Mackenzie M. Herzog, PhD, MPH, William N. Levine, MD
  • Source: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine (May 2021)

Epidemiology of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears in the National Football League

  • Authors: Riann M. Palmieri-Smith, PhD, ATC, Christina D. Mack, PhD, Robert H. Brophy, MD, Brett D. Owens, MD, Mackenzie M. Herzog, PhD, Bruce D. Beynnon, PhD, Kurt P. Spindler, MD, Edward M. Wojtys, MD
  • Source: The American Journal of Sports Medicine (April 2021)

Full Article

Incidence of Lower Extremity Injury in the National Football League: 2015 to 2018

  • Authors: Christina D. Mack, Richard W. Kent, Michael J. Coughlin, Kristin Y. Shiue, Leigh J. Weiss, James R. Jastifer, Edward M. Wojtys, Robert B. Anderson
  • Source: The American Journal of Sports Medicine (May 2020)

Pectoralis Major Injuries in the National Football League

  • Authors: Shawn Sahota, MD, Daniel B. Gibbs, MD, Cort D. Lawton, MD, Earvin S. Balderama, PhD, Caitlin C. Chambers, MD, Christina D. Mack, PhD, Kristina Franke, MPH, Gordon W. Nuber, MD
  • Source: Sports Health (December 2019)

Does Overexertion Correlate With Increased Injury? The Relationship Between Player Workload And Soft Tissue Injury In Professional American Football Players Using Wearable Technology

  • Authors: Ryan T. Li, Michael J. Salata, Sagar Rambhia, Joe Sheehan, James E. Voos
  • Source: Sports Health (August 2019)

Lessons on Data Collection and Curation From the NFL Injury Surveillance Program

  • Authors: N.A. Dreyer, C.D. Mack, R.B. Anderson, E.M. Wojtys, E.B. Hershman, A. Sills
  • Source: Sports Health (July 2019)

Synthetic Turf: History, Design, Maintenance, and Athlete Safety

  • Authors: James R. Jastifer, MD, Andrew S. McNitt, PhD, Christina D. Mack, PhD, Richard W. Kent, PhD, Kirk A. McCullough, MD, Michael J. Coughlin, MD, and Robert B. Anderson, MD
  • Source: Sports Health (August 2018)

Development of a Footwear Sizing System in the National Football League

  • Authors: John W. Wannop, PhD, Darren J. Stefanyshyn, PhD, Robert B. Anderson, MD, Michael J. Coughlin, MD, and Richard Kent, PhD
  • Source: Sports Health (July 2018)

Video Analysis of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears in Professional American Football Athletes

  • Authors: Jeffrey T. Johnston, MD , Bert R. Mandelbaum, MD, David Schub, MD, Scott A. Rodeo, MD, Matthew J. Matava, MD, Holly J. Silvers-Granelli, MPT, PhD, Brian J. Cole, MD, MBA, Neil S. ElAttrache, MD, Tim R. McAdams, MD, Robert H. Brophy, MD
  • Source: The American Journal of Sports Medicine (February 2018)

Distal Fibula Fractures in National Football League Athletes

  • Authors: Brian C. Werner, MD, Christina Mack, PhD, MSPH, Kristina Franke, MPH, Ronnie P. Barnes, MS, ATC, Russell F. Warren, MD, and Scott A. Rodeo, MD
  • Source: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine (September 2017)

The Athletic Shoe in Football: Apparel or Protective Equipment

  • Authors: James Jastifer, MD, Richard Kent, PhD, Jeff Crandall, PhD, Chris Sherwood, MS, David Lessley, PhD, Kirk A. McCullough, MD, Michael J. Coughlin, MD, and Robert B. Anderson, MD
  • Source: Sports Health (February 2017)

Superior Labrum Anterior-Posterior Tears in the National Football League

  • Authors: Caitlin Chambers, MD, ATC, T. Sean Lynch, MD, Daniel B. Gibbs, MD, Jason H. Ghodasra, MD, Shawn Sahota, MD, Kristina Franke, MPH, Christina D. Mack, PhD, Gordon W. Nuber, MD
  • Source: The American Journal of Sports Medicine (October 2016)

Clinical Research in the National Football League: The Player Scientific and Medical Research Protocol

  • Authors: Christina Mack, Matthew Matava, Kristina Zeidler, Allen Sills, Gary Solomon
  • Source: Current Sports Medicine Reports (May 2020)