After spending all summer analyzing teams, player situations, and tracking news to get prepared for the 2019 season -- it's time to get down to the fun stuff. To get you prepared to draft your squads this season, my fantasy team previews discuss every fantasy-relevant skill player, positional strategy, and where I have players ranked versus their NFL.com average draft position (ADP). Let's get to it!
Quarterback: Coming off one of the most explosive rushing seasons for any quarterback ever, I figured there would be more fantasy hype surrounding Lamar Jackson entering 2019. Running QBs are a cheat code in fantasy football, and Jackson isn't being drafted anywhere close to his ceiling. Including the postseason, Jackson averaged 76.2 YPG on the ground in his eight starts -- which would have been the best single-season figure for any quarterback all-time. For reference, Michael Vick's three best single-season rushing figures were 64.9, 60.1, and 56.3 yards per game. Jackson was heavily utilized in scoring position, too, as his 1.6 carries inside-the-ten (red-zone) per game would have tied Ezekiel Elliott for 12th-most among RBs. Granted, Jackson struggled mightily as a rookie passer -- his 41 percent success rate through the air was worse than Flacco's (44 percent) and he earned PFF's lowest mark in accurate throws (48 percent) -- but there are significant signs that will improve in 2019. The Ravens brought in Greg Roman to design their attack, and he's the same OC that helped guide Colin Kaepernick to a 7.5 YPA, 4.5 percent touchdown rate, 92.0 passer rating in 2012-14. Kaepernick added 35.1 YPG on the ground in this span. After Roman moved on from San Francisco, he got a career-best season out of Bills' QB Tyrod Taylor in 2015 (8.0 YPA; 5.3 percent TD rate; 99.4 rating; 40.6 Rush YPG). Now on his third stop in Baltimore, Roman gets the most dynamic running QB that he's worked with. With a new OC, two new RBs, and two athletic rookie WRs on the perimeter -- Lamar Jackson is a great bet to improve through the air this season after a pedestrian rookie year (7.0 YPA; 4.0 percent TD rate; 84.5 rating). The Ravens are designing a tailor-made offense to highlight Jackson's strengths, and it won't require expensive investment on draft day to find out how much he's improved in his second season.
-- Jackson (Rk: QB13 vs. ADP: QB16)
Running Back: Baltimore cleaned out their backfield this offseason, cutting three of their top-5 RBs in 2018 snaps (Alex Collins, Buck Allen, Ty Montgomery). FA addition Mark Ingram joins rookie Justice Hill alongside last year's backfield mates, Gus Edwards and Kenneth Dixon, to fill out the Ravens revised 2019 depth chart. Once Jackson took over as Baltimore's starter in Week 11, the Ravens went a jaw-dropping 64 percent run-heavy, easily the highest rate in the NFL. For context, the next most run-oriented teams were the Seahawks (55 percent), Titans (51 percent), and Bills (48 percent) over the full season. With Jackson under center, Baltimore backs ranked 4th in success rate (55 percent), 2nd in carries per game (24.9), 1st in YPC (5.3), and 1st in rushing yards per game (149.0). Ingram is the perfect downhill slugger to pair with Jackson's dynamic speed, and it will give the Ravens one of the most difficult backfields to defend. Since 2016, Ingram ranks as the 9th-best runner in yards after contact, he's 6th-best in YPC, and ranks 4th in success rate. Hill, Edwards, and Dixon's presence will hold Ingram back from being a true workhorse, but long an underrated receiver -- Ingram is easily the most versatile back in Baltimore. While Gus Edwards is a great north-south runner, the Ravens plucked him from the field in passing situations in favor of Dixon. That doesn't have to happen with Ingram in 2019. OC Greg Roman's presence also helps Ingram's outlook, as Frank Gore managed RB10, RB18 and RB21 fantasy campaigns in 2012-14. LeSean McCoy recorded RB11 and RB4 finishes under Roman in 2015-16. As icing on the cake, the Ravens face the second-easiest slate of rush defenses per Warren Sharp's metrics. Ingram is my most-drafted running back in 2019.
*-- Ingram (Rk: RB19 vs. ADP: RB23); Hill (Rk: RB58 vs. ADP: RB61) *
Wide Receiver: Lamar Jackson's weaponry will be much-improved in 2019, but it's tough to forecast a breakout for any of their receivers. Volume is the primary concern -- because the Ravens are so run-heavy, will anyone see enough targets to be useful in fantasy football? Much like their backfield, the Ravens also overhauled their receiver room this offseason. Rookies Marquise Brown and Myles Boykin offer major upgrades in athleticism over Jackson's 2018 cast. Brown is still nursing a foot injury, but both he and Boykin are expected to start Week 1 on the boundary with veteran Willie Snead manning the slot. While I expect Jackson to take a big step forward in his development this season, it likely won't culminate in much fantasy production at receiver. Last year's Ravens' WRs averaged 18.1 PPR points per game with Jackson at the controls, which was the worst per game average for a single team in six years. In fact, 9 individual wide receivers out-scored Baltimore's entire receiver corps in 2018. Brown's game-breaking ability interests me late in best-ball leagues where you don't have to set a weekly roster, but I'll be pleasantly surprised if a single receiver emerges as a fantasy starter on a run-first Baltimore squad.
-- Brown (Rk: WR60 vs. ADP: WR73)
Tight End: After becoming one of just 18 TEs to eclipse 500 yards receiving in their rookie season over the last 30 years, Andrews offers breakout appeal in the late-rounds. Not only were Andrews' bulk rookie stats impressive, he was efficient as well -- earning PFF's fifth-highest mark in yards gained per route run. Only George Kittle, Travis Kelce, O.J. Howard, and Zach Ertz ranked over Andrews in YPRR. Baltimore's low volume pass offense combined with a murky depth chart gives some pause here, but the tight end will be an integral part of this run-heavy attack. Jackson targeted his tight ends on 28 percent of his pass attempts last season, which would have ranked fourth-most among all teams. Only the Eagles (35 percent), Chiefs (30 percent), and 49ers (29 percent) targeted their tight ends more often. While we all want Andrews to become a full-time player and breakout accordingly, the Ravens coaching staff have limited him to a limited role this preseason. On Lamar Jackson's 36 preseason snaps through two games, Nick Boyle has played 21 snaps while Andrews has played 11 (Hayden Hurst: 10 snaps). Andrews led the Ravens in targets per route run last year, but he'll struggle to maintain a weekly floor unless he plays significantly more snaps.
-- Andrews (Rk: TE15 vs. ADP: TE15)
Quarterback: After miraculously spending 16 years as HC, the Bengals finally decided to turn the page on Marvin Lewis this offseason. The Bengals hired Sean McVay disciple Zac Taylor away from LA, making the 36-year-old a first-time head coach. Taylor's brand new Cincy staff is tasked with reimagining the offense after Lewis and Bill Lazor's flat 2017 and 2018 seasons. Andy Dalton is getting a second chance under Taylor's tutelage, but A.J. Green's latest injury halts the likelihood of a Bengals bounceback. Unsurprisingly, Dalton has been far more successful with Green on the field over the last three years. Dalton has averaged 19.6 fantasy points per game with Green in the lineup from 2016-18, which would make him the QB11 in fantasy points per game in this span. All of Dalton's traditional passing stats -- YPA (7.2 vs. 7.0), YPG (240.3 vs. 212.2), and TDs per game (1.6 vs. 1.2) -- improve markedly when Green plays. I won't pretend to know what Taylor's offense will ultimately look like in 2019, but heavy play-action usage should be a natural rollover from McVay's Rams. Los Angeles has utilized play-action more than any team in the league over the last two seasons, and that should be welcome news to Dalton. Per PFF, Dalton's efficiency has increased dramatically when using play-action (8.0 YPA; 94.5 rating; 63 percent completions) vs non-PA attempts (6.9 YPA; 86.2 rating; 60 percent completions) from 2016 to 2018. I'm moderately optimistic that Dalton and Co. can put together a fantasy-friendly offense, but their schedule won't do them any favors. Per Warren Sharp's strength of schedule metrics, the Bengals project to face the worst slate of pass defenses in the NFL. Nine of their opponents ranked top-12 or better in fantasy points allowed per pass attempt in 2018.
-- Dalton (Rk: QB26 vs. ADP: QB29)
Running Back: Joe Mixon enters 2019 as the Bengals bellcow back, fresh off taking a big step forward in his sophomore campaign. Mixon's ground efficiency improved drastically last year (2.8 yards after contact; 0.14 missed tackles per attempt; 49 percent success rate) compared to his rookie season (2.4 YAC; 0.10 missed tackles per attempt; 41 percent success rate). The boost on the ground coupled with a workhorse role fueled Mixon's RB9 finish in PPR points per game last year. Mixon should command one of the best roles in fantasy football again this season, as he was one of only six running backs that handled over 60 percent of their team's rush attempts and saw at least 10 percent of passing targets in 2018. Saquon Barkley, Ezekiel Elliott, David Johnson, Todd Gurley, and James Conner were the other five backs to make this list. Gio Bernard saw a career-low snap rate last season as the Bengals increased Mixon's workload, making Bernard a handcuff only for 2019. The Bengals OL remains a concern, especially after first-round pick T Jonah Williams' season-ending knee injury, but Mixon's high volume role is enough to alleviate most of those concerns. We always want to chase workhorse backs in fantasy football. Fantasy managers picking near the first-second round turn should salivate at the opportunity to start their drafts with a top-8 receiver (or Travis Kelce) and Mixon (17 overall ADP). Gio Bernard is the only depth the Bengals have at running back, making him a true handcuff to Mixon. Bernard has averaged 19.8 PPR points on 17.5 touches per game in Mixon's four missed starts.
-- Mixon (Rk: RB9 vs. ADP: RB9); Bernard (Rk: RB61 vs. ADP: RB63)
Wide Receiver: A.J. Green has missed 13 games over the past three seasons, but he has remained a fantasy stud when healthy. Green has put up 17.1 PPR points (7th-most among wide receivers) and 81.2 yards per game (6th-most) while seeing 9.5 targets per day (5th-most) from 2016-18. Unfortunately, Green tore "multiple ligaments" in his foot on the first day of camp. This is now Green's fourth major injury in six years, and the Bengals expect his latest foot issue to take six to eight weeks to heal. It's likely Green misses at least Week 1 with his latest injury. Unless he slips into the sixth or seventh round of drafts, I don't imagine I'll have A.J. Green on many of my fantasy teams this year. HC Zac Taylor has already mentioned that he's expecting Green to miss "multiple games" while rehabbing his foot. Tyler Boyd unexpectedly broke out in 2018, earning the league's third-best success rate (63 percent), 6th-best passer rating when targeted (127.8), and ranking 21st-of-96 WRs in yards gained per route run (2.06). Boyd was one of the NFL's most efficient pass catchers last year, an impressive feat considering he played five games with Jeff Driskel. Not having Green on the field severely impacts this offense as a whole, but Boyd is locked in for a big 2019 role. Speedster John Ross will round out the Bengals three-receiver sets when Green is healthy, but he's an ill-advised late-round selection. Ross scored 7 TDs on his 21 receptions last year, a number that is sure to regress, while his 0.57 yards gained per route run each ranked dead last among all wideouts last year.
-- Green (Rk: WR29 vs. ADP: WR22); Boyd (Rk: WR25 vs. ADP: WR24)
Tight End: After missing 34 games due to various injuries over the past three years, Tyler Eifert is a swing-for-the-fences play in the final few rounds of your draft. After rewatching his 2018 catches, Eifert looked like he was moving well in three and a half games of action before unfortunately breaking his ankle in Week 4 against Atlanta. Eifert only saw 19 passing looks last year, but he averaged an explosive 9.4 yards per target from Dalton. Trusting Eifert in fantasy is impossible and the Bengals would be wise to put him on a pitch count this season, but he's one of only a handful of late-round TEs that has the potential to become a weekly fantasy starter. Vet C.J. Uzomah and No. 52 overall pick Drew Sample will provide insurance on Eifert in 2019.
-- Eifert (Rk: TE26 vs. ADP: TE25)
Quarterback: Last year was a tale of two seasons for the Browns, and Baker Mayfield's results on the field are the receipts. Hue Jackson and Todd Haley left Cleveland in shambles mid-season, and Mayfield was inconsistent in his limited starts on their watch. In Weeks 3-8 with Jackson/Haley, Mayfield completed 58 percent of his throws for just 6.6 YPA and a sub-par 41 percent success rate. Mayfield's 17.4 fantasy points per game in Weeks 3-8 ranked him 17th at the position. HC Freddie Kitchens took over play-calling duties in Week 9, helping kick start the Browns turnaround. Mayfield's performance absolutely sky-rocketed with Kitchens, as he averaged 23.5 fantasy PPG in Weeks 9-17. Mayfield's improved performance was largely driven by a sharp increase in aerial efficiency (68 percent completions; 8.6 YPA; 52 percent success rate). Kitchens' optimized play-calling wasn't the only thing that helped lift Mayfield and Co., though. The Browns were tactically different under Kitchens, using 3WR sets (54 percent) far less often than Jackson/Haley did (69 percent). The Browns also used play-action (24 percent vs. 20 percent) more often under Kitchens vs. Jackson/Haley, and the added deception worked wonders. From Week 9 on, Mayfield ranked sixth-best in QB rating on play-action passes. Kitchens' scheme changes simply put Mayfield in more advantageous situations. In his final eight starts, Mayfield threw into a tight window -- which Next Gen Stats defines as fewer than one yard of separation from receiver to defender -- on just 14 percent of his passes (11th-lowest rate). In his first six games with the old regime, Mayfield threw into a tight window 19 percent of the time (sixth-highest rate). While Odell Beckham's acquisition pushes the Browns ceiling offensively into the stratosphere, Cleveland made another sharp move this offseason in poaching OC Todd Monken away from Tampa Bay. An Air Raid disciple, Monken oversaw the Bucs offense as they led the NFL in passing yardage last year. Mayfield is going to be expensive in drafts, but the Browns of old are gone. There is a chance multiple fantasy league winners are on the Browns in 2019.
-- Mayfield (Rk: QB4 vs. ADP: QB5)
Running Back: Nick Chubb hilariously rode the bench for Hue Jackson early in his rookie season, literally playing 30 snaps in the Browns first six games while Carlos Hyde racked up an ineffective 3.4 YPC on 19 carries per game. Just two weeks before GM John Dorsey fired both Jackson and OC Todd Haley, Dorsey saved Jackson from his sub-optimal decision making by trading Hyde away to Jacksonville. Chubb exploded without Hyde in the way, and immediately gave the Browns run game a lift that they desperately needed. From Week 7 on, Chubb led the entire league in rushing (88.0 YPG), no running back saw a higher share of his team carries (75 percent) in this span, and only six RBs scored more PPR points. David Johnson led all RBs in team share of inside-the-ten carries last season (76 percent) -- but Chubb saw 80 percent of Browns' totes in scoring position post-Hyde trade. Chubb won patient managers their league last year, and he is set up to have one of the best roles in fantasy again, at least until Kareem Hunt eligible to play in Week 9. I won't pretend to know how Hunt will ultimately perform -- he'll nearly be a year removed from football when he returns -- but I do know Chubb is just as talented as the former-Chief. Chubb's efficiency on his 192 career carries (5.2 YPC; 49 percent success rate; 0.25 missed tackles forced per carry) holds up compared to Hunt's performance on 453 attempts (4.7 YPC; 48 percent success rate; 0.23 MTs per carry). I always want a fast start in my fantasy leagues, and Chubb is a no-brainer RB1 for the first eight weeks of the season. Chubb has top-5 upside without Hunt and I have a hard time seeing him relinquishing the starting job once Hunt returns. Duke Johnson getting traded away to Houston just further solidifies Chubb for an elite role in Weeks 1-8. I want fast starts in my fantasy leagues and arguably only Barkley, McCaffrey, Kamara, Elliott (hopefully), and Johnson have better outlooks in the opening two months of the season than Chubb. On the flip side, I don't want to be in the business of taking eight-straight zeros on my bench -- so Hunt is never on my squads. Dontrell Hilliard is projected as the Browns No. 2 until Hunt returns to the field.
-- Chubb (Rk: RB8 vs. ADP: RB11); Hunt (Rk: RB65 vs. ADP: RB44); Hilliard (Rk: RB70 vs. ADP: Undrafted on NFL.com)
Wide Receiver: Injuries have cut each of Odell Beckham's last two seasons short, but that has not stopped him from being a dominant force when healthy. We have only seen OBJ in 16-of-32 possible games, but Beckham's 19.0 PPR PPG in 2017-18 ties him with Davante Adams as the WR3 in this span. Going from Manning to Mayfield is a quantum leap in QB play, and you can find Beckham at 12/1 (or higher) odds to lead the league in receiving this season. I have Beckham at 8 overall in my ranks, which may be the highest I've seen in the fantasy industry. Consequently, Beckham's addition is an obvious ding to Jarvis Landry. In fact, Landry was already becoming a smaller cog in the Browns attack once Kitchens began calling plays. With Todd Haley as OC in Weeks 1-8, Jarvis Landry saw 11.8 targets per game and received double-digit passing looks in 7-of-8 contests. With Freddie Kitchens, Landry averaged just 6.8 targets per game and saw double-digit targets zero times. While he may not have a high-volume role, the case for Landry is simple. Beckham will take a ton of attention away from Landry in the slot while no receiver has caught more passes through their first five pro seasons than Landry (481). Landry was forced into seeing his targets deeper downfield than usual last season -- his average depth of target (11.9 yards) was a career-high -- so getting Beckham to take the lid off of the defense will hopefully allow Landry to resume seeing more efficient, shallow slot targets. I like getting Landry as my WR3 in the seventh-round of PPR leagues, but I'm not going out of my way to overspend with Beckham in town.
*-- Beckham (Rk: WR3 vs. ADP: WR4); Landry (Rk: WR30 vs. ADP: WR28) *
Tight End: Njoku's projected target share in 2019 is precarious. Once Freddie Kitchens took over as the Browns play-caller in Week 9 last year, Njoku saw just 4.6 targets per game after previously seeing 6.4 T/G with Todd Haley calling plays. Njoku's 20 percent target share in Weeks 1-8 tied Jordan Reed for the fourth-highest rate among TEs in this span. With Kitchens, Njoku's target share fell to a paltry 14 percent (tying him for 14th among TEs). Now, Njoku has to compete with OBJ for targets in addition to Jarvis Landry. Eric Ebron (seventh round ADP) and Njoku (eighth round) share the mantle for the most overvalued tight ends in fantasy drafts.
-- Njoku (Rk: TE9 vs. ADP: TE10)
Quarterback: Projecting how Antonio Brown's departure will affect Big Ben and the Steelers offense is a tough task. Ben-to-AB was one of the league's most prolific duos of all-time, and the numbers are truly eye-popping. As Roethlisberger's target on nearly 30 percent of his throws, AB averaged a ridiculous 7.5 receptions per game as he finished as the WR5, WR2, WR1, WR1, WR1, and WR2 in fantasy points from 2013-18. Brown led all wideouts in receptions (by a difference of 121 catches), receiving yards (by 571), and touchdowns (by 30!) over the last six seasons. Now entering the final few years of his career, 37-year-old Roethlisberger will have to adjust to life without one of the greatest receivers ever. Because AB was always available -- Big Ben played just two games without him during 2013-18 -- we don't have much film or data to glean from about how the Steelers will approach offense without Brown. JuJu Smith-Schuster will obviously be thrust into a large role and the Steelers will be trotting out three new wideouts, James Washington and Donte Moncrief, and rookie Diontae Johnson, to try and replace AB. OC Randy Fitchner and Roethlisberger will have to reimagine their attack without Brown, and it's fair to wonder if their tendencies will change as a result. Only four teams have been more pass-heavy than the Steelers over the past three years while Roethlisberger finished 12th, 2nd, and 1st in attempts per game in this span. Pittsburgh is uniquely designed to overcome the loss of their star receiver -- no team has been better at drafting and developing wideouts -- and their OL remains one of the best in the league. Big Ben still has a high ceiling, but will he remain a top tier fantasy QB without Brown? Early fantasy drafters appear convinced. He's currently the QB13 in ADP on NFL.com, ahead of Philip Rivers, Dak Prescott, Jameis Winston, Lamar Jackson, and Kyler Murray.
-- Roethlisberger (Rk: QB18 vs. ADP: QB14)
Running Back: Before missing Weeks 14-16 with an ankle injury, James Conner was on a fantasy league-winning tear. In his first 12 starts, Conner ranked 2nd among running backs in snaps, he was 4th in touches, 6th in scrimmage yards, and 6th in PPR PPG. Even though the Steelers were the most pass-heavy team in the league, Conner owned one of the best roles in fantasy. Conner, Gurley, Elliott, DJ, Barkley, and Mixon were the elite cohort of backs to see at least two-thirds of their team's total carries and attempts inside-the-ten (red-zone). The Steelers have a long history of riding workhorse backs under HC Mike Tomlin that dates back to Rashard Mendenhall, and I'm not buying into beat writer hype that Conner will lose his full-time role. Jaylen Samuels does offer an added dimension as a pass-catcher that the Steelers would be foolish to not explore, but Conner was extremely underrated last year. Le'Veon is a more talented receiver, but Conner and Bell had nearly similar rushing efficiency if we take a look back at the last three seasons. Bell averaged 2.7 yards after contact, forced 0.16 missed tackles per carry, and earned a 53 percent success rate from 2016-17 while Conner more than held his own last year (2.6 YAC, 0.16 MTs, 52 percent success). What's even more impressive is that Conner faced a stacked front (eight or more defenders inside the tackle box) more often last year (28 percent) than Bell did in his final two seasons in Pittsburgh (22 percent). Unsurprisingly, the Steelers have continued to use Conner in a bell-cow role this preseason. Conner played 14-of-14 first-team snaps in the Steelers second preseason game, while both Samuels and Snell rotated in with the second-team. When Ben Roethlisberger made his preseason debut in the Steelers third exhibition game, Conner played 15-of-20 snaps while Samuels was in on just 4 plays. All of the off-season speculation that the Steelers are going to start rolling with a backfield committee have not been rooted in concrete evidence.
-- Conner (Rk: RB6 vs. ADP: RB8); Samuels (Rk: RB46 vs. ADP: RB40)
Wide Receiver: After leading the Steelers in receiving yards last season, JuJu Smith-Schuster enters 2019 as a no-brainer WR1 in fantasy. Antonio Brown's departure is the main source of Pittsburgh's 225 vacated targets, which is fifth-most among all teams based on last year's usage. Smith-Schuster will see a lot more defensive attention without AB, but Pittsburgh will continue to move JuJu into the slot often to avoid worse boundary matchups. Smith-Schuster has spent 52 percent of his snaps in the slot in his first two seasons, and that usage should continue with Donte Moncrief and James Washington on the perimeter. Washington had a quiet rookie season (16/217/1) playing fifth fiddle to Brown, JuJu, Conner, and McDonald -- but don't sleep on the former Oklahoma State product. Washington ended his collegiate career with 1,000 yards and 10 or more TDs in three-straight seasons. While Washington has looked sudden and explosive this preseason, most of his work has come with the second-team offense. Moncrief, Diontae Johnson, Ryan Switzer, and Eli Rogers all have more first-team snaps than Washington through two preseason games. Donte Moncrief has been a perennial fantasy disappointment, but new digs and a ton of open opportunity keeps the light on for him in the 12th or 13th round of drafts. I've flipped Moncrief and Washington in my ranks after seeing how far ahead Moncrief is on the totem-pole this preseason. After notoriously taking Brown in the sixth-round out of Central Michigan, the Steelers FO is trying to recreate their MAC magic after selecting Diontae Johnson at 66 overall in this year's NFL Draft. Johnson posted a monster 123/2039/21 receiving line and added 20 yards per return as a sophomore and junior at Toledo, but he has a ton of competition ahead of him on the depth chart as a rookie.
*-- Smith-Schuster (Rk: WR7 vs. ADP: WR7); Moncrief (Rk: WR45 vs. ADP: WR51); Washington (Rk: WR50 vs. ADP: WR50) *
Tight End: Health is always the concern with Vance McDonald, but when he's been able to stay on the field, he's flashed elite talent. In fact, McDonald trails only George Kittle in YAC over the last two years while also demonstrating excellent small sample chemistry with Roethlisberger. McDonald's 67 percent catch rate with Big Ben easily bests his career average pre-Pittsburgh (54 percent). With a wide open depth chart behind Smith-Schuster at receiver, McDonald is a great bet to further improve on his career-best 50/610/4 stat line from last season. Jesse James is now a Lion, leaving McDonald alone atop the depth chart in 2019. McDonald played on 14-of-14 first-team snaps in the Steelers second preseason game, confirming a full-time role is on the horizon. I've sky-rocketed McDonald up in my overall rankings, and I'm targeting him as early as the late-sixth round when I miss out on the mid-round triumvirate of Howard, Engram, and Henry.
-- McDonald (Rk: TE7 vs. ADP: TE9)