Vilma and his attorneys emerged from the three-hour-long conference with U.S. Magistrate Daniel Knowles III without commenting on whether progress was made toward resolution of the case. The meeting was closed to the public.
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In a ruling obtained by NFL.com and NFL Network reporter Albert Breer, Knowles said that a settlement was not reached.
The parties are instructed to contact the Court at any stage of the proceeding if an additional settlement conference would be beneficial.
Peter Ginsberg, one of Vilma's attorneys, said only that the group "went through the settlement process" and that he expects "things will move along."
Vilma declined to comment on the talks, but said, "I want the team to do well, and I want to be part of the team."
NFL attorneys and lawyers for Smith also declined comment.
Vilma's lawsuit claims NFL Commissioner Roger Goodell failed to make a timely appeal ruling regarding his season-long suspension.
His suit also asks for a temporary restraining order to allow Vilma to rejoin the team. U.S. District Judge Helen Berrigan in New Orleans is scheduled to hold a hearing Thursday on that request.
Vilma filed a separate suit against Goodell for alleged defamation of character. The NFL Players Association sued the NFL on behalf of Smith and two other suspended players, Scott Fujita and Anthony Hargrove.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.