Peterson was arrested around 2:30 a.m. CDT. He spent the night in jail and was released on a $1,000 bond at 10:14 a.m.
HPD spokesman Kese Smith said Peterson allegedly pushed an off-duty police officer who was working security at Live! at Bayou Place.
As the off-duty officer cycled through the bar at closing time, he asked Peterson and his group of friends to leave, according to Smith. When the officer returned, Peterson told him "I heard you the first time," and pushed the officer in the shoulder, causing him to stumble.
The officer asked the Vikings running back to turn and place his hands behind his back. Peterson refused, according to Smith.
As the officer attempted to place Peterson in handcuffs, the running back pulled away, began shouting and assumed an aggressive stance. A second off-duty officer approached, according to Smith, but Peterson continued to resist arrest. When a third off-duty officer arrived, Peterson was handcuffed and taken to jail. At the station, Peterson complained of shortness of breath, but Smith said he checked out OK.
Peterson was not subject to a toxicology examination, and officers didn't note if he appeared drunk or impaired, Smith said.
Live! at Bayou Place general manager Daniel Maher told a different story to TMZ.com. Maher said Peterson appeared heavily intoxicated at the time of the arrest, which he said was out of character for the player, who had been to the club before.
Maher characterized Peterson as a "difficult customer all night" who was "throwing his ego around and making people mad" until he was shuttled off to the VIP area.
At closing time, according to Maher, Peterson rushed to the bar to order a final drink. When Peterson was denied, Maher said he "tried to intimidate the bartender" into selling him one. Maher attempted to intervene, but was unsuccessful. That's when the off-duty officer stepped in.
When Peterson assumed a fighting position, he looked "like he meant business," Maher said. "He looked really scary and I thought he was gonna attack the cops."
A source with knowledge of the situation told ProFootballTalk.com the incident was captured on one or more surveillance cameras inside the club.
Jeremiah: Out of character
Peterson is slated to appear before a judge in Harris County on Friday, July 13.
"We are aware of the situation," the Vikings said in a statement. "We will withhold further comment until more information is known."
"He's one of our biggest leaders," Ponder said. "Adrian is a great guy. Maybe it was one bad decision he made. Who knows? He won't be a distraction at all."
Peterson, 27, has spent this offseason working his way back from the torn anterior cruciate ligament he suffered on Dec. 24. The sixth-year pro has spoken repeatedly of a Week 1 return to the field.
In five seasons, Peterson has totaled 6,752 yards and 64 touchdowns on the ground for the Vikings, who signed him to a seven-year, $96 million deal in 2011.
UPDATE: TMZ released a brief video Sunday morning that purportedly shows Peterson being detained by police officers. The video does not provide context of the arrest.
NFL.com's Eric Kelsey, Jonathan Raber and Matt Wilhalme contributed to this report.