Hartline was sidelined when he hurt a finger during last Sunday's 13-10 loss to the Cleveland Browns.
The Miami Herald reported that Hartline underwent surgery on his injured hand Tuesday. A return this season hasn't been ruled out for the second-year Ohio State product, a source told the newspaper.
Hartline has been a favorite target of Miami quarterbacks in recent weeks, having one catch of at least 24 yards in six consecutive games before Sunday.
The Dolphins also placed cornerback Al Harris on injured reserve because of a hamstring injury, ending his 13th NFL season.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.