The procedure came two days after Mixon suffered a right knee injury during the team's Thursday night victory over the Baltimore Ravens. Mixon missed a portion of the second half before returning to finish with 84 yards on 21 carries.
NFL Network's Tom Pelissero and Mike Garafolo first reported Friday that Mixon would need surgery.
Giovani Bernard, who is in his sixth season, should see the majority of snaps moving forward, but the offense will miss Mixon's big-play capability while he recovers.
The Bengals were 7-2 when Mixon received 15-plus touches during his 2017 rookie campaign. Through two games this season, he had 22 offensive touches in each of the team's games and made the most of the additional work. Mixon averaged 19 carries per game for 89.5 yards and 4.7 yards per carry in the first two games when compared to 12.7 carries for 44.7 yards and 3.5 yards per carry last year.