Bush had 61 yards on 10 carries, the last coming on a first-and-10 from the Miami 20. He was tackled and rolled over once, grabbing at his left knee before being tended to by trainers.
Followed by members of the team's medical staff, Bush left the field through one of the former baseball dugouts at Sun Life Stadium, which is closer to the Dolphins' sideline than the end-zone tunnel.
Bush was not on the field for the Dolphins' first two possessions of the second half but was then seen on the sideline working with a trainer and riding an exercise bike.
Bush entered the day second in the NFL with 241 rushing yards, second only to Buffalo's C.J. Spiller, who was injured against Cleveland earlier Sunday.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.