The St. Louis circuit attorney's office brought the charges more than two months after Maroney was one of several people arrested when officers smelled marijuana during a traffic stop and found weapons in a vehicle.
Although no one was charged with a weapons violation, four men besides Maroney also face misdemeanor drug charges.
Maroney's attorney, Scott Rosenblum, told The Post-Dispatch that it was "unfortunate" his client was charged. Rosenblum also said Maroney plans to plead not guilty.
In January, Maroney told ESPN Radio in St. Louis that he "thought I'd never be in this position" while declaring his innocence and acknowledging he needed to make "better decisions."
"The police have a hard job," Maroney said, "and I understand everything and the procedures they went through and why they had to do what they had to do, so it's a hard job for them. And, definitely, right now, it's a hard time for me, so right now we're just trying to deal with this and get it solved as quickly as possible."
The Broncos released Maroney on March 3, making him an unrestricted free agent just six months after the New England Patriots traded the former first-round draft pick. According to the Post-Dispatch, he faces anywhere from probation to a year in jail.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.