In Seattle, Polumbus will be reunited with offensive coordinator Jeremy Bates, who was the Broncos' quarterbacks coach in 2008, when the lineman was a rookie. It wasn't immediately known what or whom the Lions acquired in exchange for Polumbus.
The Lions also placed cornerback Jack Williams on the physically unable to perform list.
Williams has been sidelined since injuring a knee in his first game with the Lions last season. He will miss at least the first six games of the season.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.